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Housing

In addition to questions about people, Census collects extensive data about housing, including costs and physical characteristics of homes.

Overview

While people often think of the Census as asking questions about people, the American Community Survey also gathers extensive data about the housing conditions of respondents, including whether they own or rent their home, how much they spend on housing, and the physical characteristics of homes. The ACS primarily reports housing data in tables with codes beginning with 25.

Most of the tables count the number of housing units for a given characteristic. However, a few tables estimate the number of people living in owned or rented housing units.

A housing unit is anything from a house to an apartment or even a boat if a person is currently living there.

Occupied and Unoccupied Housing Units

Vacancy

Every housing unit is recorded as either occupied or vacant. Some vacancies are market related, such as houses for sale or apartments for rent. Other housing units are seasonally vacant. Table B25004 (Vacancy Status) records the number of vacancies in each category.

Tenure

Occupied housing units in the ACS are split into two categories: renter-occupied and owner-occupied. This distinction is known as “tenure” (think “tenant”).

Code Title
B07013§ Geographical Mobility in the Past Year by Tenure for Current Residence in the United States
B07413§ Geographical Mobility in the Past Year by Tenure for Residence 1 Year Ago in the United States
B08137 Means of Transportation to Work by Tenure
B08537 Means of Transportation to Work by Tenure
B17019 Poverty Status of Families by Household Type by Tenure
B25003 Tenure
B25007 Tenure by Age of Householder
B25008 Total Population in Occupied Housing Units by Tenure
B25009 Tenure by Household Size
B25010 Average Household Size of Occupied Housing Units by Tenure
B25011 Tenure by Household Type (Including Living Alone) and Age of Householder
B25012 Tenure by Families and Presence of Own Children
B25013 Tenure by Educational Attainment of Householder
B25014 Tenure by Occupants Per Room
B25015 Tenure by Age of Householder by Occupants Per Room
B25016 Tenure by Plumbing Facilities by Occupants Per Room
B25020 Tenure by Rooms
B25021 Median Number of Rooms by Tenure
B25022 Aggregate Number of Rooms by Tenure
B25026 Total Population in Occupied Housing Units by Tenure by Year Householder Moved Into Unit
B25032‡† Tenure by Units in Structure
B25033 Total Population in Occupied Housing Units by Tenure by Units in Structure
B25036 Tenure by Year Structure Built
B25037 Median Year Structure Built by Tenure
B25038 Tenure by Year Householder Moved Into Unit
B25039 Median Year Householder Moved Into Unit by Tenure
B25042 Tenure by Bedrooms
B25043 Tenure by Telephone Service Available by Age of Householder
B25044 Tenure by Vehicles Available
B25045 Tenure by Vehicles Available by Age of Householder
B25046 Aggregate Number of Vehicles Available by Tenure
B25049 Tenure by Plumbing Facilities
B25053 Tenure by Kitchen Facilities
B25106 Tenure by Housing Costs as a Percentage of Household Income
B25115 Tenure by Household Type and Presence and Age of Own Children
B25116 Tenure by Household Size by Age of Householder
B25117 Tenure by House Heating Fuel
B25118 Tenure by Household Income
B25119 Median Household Income the Past 12 Months by Tenure
B25120 Aggregate Household Income by Tenure and Mortgage Status
B25123 Tenure by Selected Physical and Financial Conditions
B25124 Tenure by Household Size by Units in Structure
B25125 Tenure by Age of Householder by Units in Structure
B25126 Tenure by Age of Householder by Year Structure Built
B25127 Tenure by Year Structure Built by Units in Structure
B25128 Tenure by Age of Householder by Year Householder Moved Into Unit
B25129 Tenure by Year Householder Moved Into Unit by Units in Structure
Table also available in "collapsed" version: change "B" to "C" for table code.
Also available in racial iterations.
§Tabulated for Puerto Rico. Add 'PR' to the table code. Column names may vary slightly from non-PR version.

Housing Units and Costs

Value

The ACS records estimated selling prices for housing units under “value”. Note that the values are calculated from self-reported estimates of occupied units and vacant units on the market. Therefore, estimates may become less reliable in a fluctuating or falling housing market.

Code Title
B25075 Value
B25076 Lower Value Quartile (Dollars)
B25077 Median Value (Dollars)
B25078 Upper Value Quartile (Dollars)
B25079 Aggregate Value (Dollars) by Age of Householder
B25080 Aggregate Value (Dollars) by Units in Structure
B25082 Aggregate Value (Dollars) by Mortgage Status
B25083 Median Value (Dollars) for Mobile Homes
B25096 Mortgage Status by Value
B25097 Mortgage Status by Median Value (Dollars)
B25100 Mortgage Status by Ratio of Value to Household Income
B25107 Median Value by Year Structure Built
B25108 Aggregate Value (Dollars) by Year Structure Built
B25109 Median Value by Year Householder Moved Into Unit
B25110 Aggregate Value (Dollars) by Year Householder Moved Into Unit
B25121 Household Income by Value
Table also available in "collapsed" version: change "B" to "C" for table code.

Mortgage Status

Table B25081 (Mortgage Status) records the type of mortgage on owner-occupied housing units. This includes first mortgages, second mortgages and home equity loans. A simpler classification, “with/without”, is used in tables relating mortgage status to topics like real estate taxes, household income, and tenure.

Code Title
B25027 Mortgage Status by Age of Householder
B25081 Mortgage Status
B25082 Aggregate Value (Dollars) by Mortgage Status
B25087 Mortgage Status and Selected Monthly Owner Costs
B25088 Median Selected Monthly Owner Costs (Dollars) by Mortgage Status
B25089 Aggregate Selected Monthly Owner Costs (Dollars) by Mortgage Status
B25090 Mortgage Status by Aggregate Real Estate Taxes Paid (Dollars)
B25091 Mortgage Status by Selected Monthly Owner Costs as a Percentage of Household Income
B25096 Mortgage Status by Value
B25097 Mortgage Status by Median Value (Dollars)
B25098 Mortgage Status by Household Income
B25099 Mortgage Status by Median Household Income
B25100 Mortgage Status by Ratio of Value to Household Income
B25101 Mortgage Status by Monthly Housing Costs as a Percentage of Household Income
B25102 Mortgage Status by Real Estate Taxes Paid
B25103 Mortgage Status by Median Real Estate Taxes Paid (Dollars)
B25120 Aggregate Household Income by Tenure and Mortgage Status

Selected Monthly Owner Costs

Homeowners with and without mortgages have ongoing monthly costs, and the American Community Survey gathers data about these costs, which are reported in tables referring to "selected monthly owner costs." The costs are reported as either a percentage of the household income or the number of housing units in a monthly cost range such as “$1,250 to $1,499”. The selected costs used for these estimates are:

  • payments for mortgages, or other debts on the property
  • real estate taxes
  • fire, hazard, and flood insurance
  • utilities (electricity, gas, and water and sewer)
  • fuel (oil, coal, kerosene, wood, etc)
  • monthly condominium fees (when applicable)
  • mobile home costs (when applicable)
Code Title
B25087 Mortgage Status and Selected Monthly Owner Costs
B25088 Median Selected Monthly Owner Costs (Dollars) by Mortgage Status
B25089 Aggregate Selected Monthly Owner Costs (Dollars) by Mortgage Status
B25091 Mortgage Status by Selected Monthly Owner Costs as a Percentage of Household Income
B25092 Median Selected Monthly Owner Costs as a Percentage of Household Income
B25093 Age of Householder by Selected Monthly Owner Costs as a Percentage of Household Income
B25094 Selected Monthly Owner Costs
B25095 Household Income by Selected Monthly Owner Costs as a Percentage of Household Income
Table also available in "collapsed" version: change "B" to "C" for table code.

Rent

There are two main categories for rent, contract and gross. Contract rent is the monthly rent agreed to without adjustments for utilities or other payments. Gross rent is similar to selected monthly owner costs. It is the sum of contract rent and the average cost of the utilities (electricity, gas, and water and sewer) and fuel (oil, coal, kerosene, wood, etc).

Code Title
B25031 Median Gross Rent by Bedrooms
B25057 Lower Contract Rent Quartile (Dollars)
B25058 Median Contract Rent (Dollars)
B25059 Upper Contract Rent Quartile (Dollars)
B25060 Aggregate Contract Rent (Dollars)
B25062 Aggregate Rent Asked (Dollars)
B25064 Median Gross Rent (Dollars)
B25065 Aggregate Gross Rent (Dollars)
B25066 Aggregate Gross Rent (Dollars) by Units in Structure
B25067 Aggregate Gross Rent (Dollars) by Meals Included in Rent
B25070 Gross Rent as a Percentage of Household Income
B25071 Median Gross Rent as a Percentage of Household Income (Dollars)
B25072 Age of Householder by Gross Rent as a Percentage of Household Income
B25074 Household Income by Gross Rent as a Percentage of Household Income
B25111 Median Gross Rent by Year Structure Built
B25112 Aggregate Gross Rent (Dollars) by Year Structure Built
B25113 Median Gross Rent by Year Householder Moved Into Unit
B25114 Aggregate Gross Rent (Dollars) by Year Householder Moved Into Unit
Table also available in "collapsed" version: change "B" to "C" for table code.

Housing Characteristics

Bedrooms

The ACS records the number of bedrooms for each housing unit, and provides tables to relate that number to tenure and rent. Housing units with only one room are listed as having no bedrooms.

Code Title
B25031 Median Gross Rent by Bedrooms
B25041 Bedrooms
B25042 Tenure by Bedrooms
B25068 Bedrooms by Gross Rent
Table also available in "collapsed" version: change "B" to "C" for table code.

Facilities

The lack of complete facilities for housing units are recorded in two areas: kitchen and plumbing. A complete kitchen requires:

  • a sink with a faucet
  • a stove
  • a refrigerator
Complete plumbing requires:
  • hot and cold running water
  • a bathtub or shower
If a housing unit doesn’t have one of those items, it is recorded as lacking a complete kitchen or complete plumbing facilities.

Code Title
B25016 Tenure by Plumbing Facilities by Occupants Per Room
B25047 Plumbing Facilities for All Housing Units
B25048 Plumbing Facilities for Occupied Housing Units
B25049 Tenure by Plumbing Facilities
B25050 Plumbing Facilities by Occupants Per Room by Year Structure Built
B25051 Kitchen Facilities for All Housing Units
B25052 Kitchen Facilities for Occupied Housing Units
B25053 Tenure by Kitchen Facilities
B25054 Kitchen Facilities by Meals Included in Rent

Selected Conditions

“Selected Conditions” is a measure of substandard housing and can be found in Table B25123. The selected conditions are:
  • incomplete plumbing or kitchens
  • overcrowding
  • 30% or more of the household income spent on rent or monthly owner costs